The divergent histories of Bose-Einstein statistics and the forgotten achievements of Władysław Natanson (1864–1937)

Authors

  • Michał Kokowski Institute for the History of Science, Polish Academy of Sciences (Warsaw– Cracow, Poland) , Studia Historiae Scientiarum (editor-in-chief) http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5389-9051

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4467/2543702XSHS.19.012.11018

Keywords:

Władysław Natanson, Ladislav Natanson, distribution of blackbody radiation, Bose statistics, Bose-Einstein statistics, Planck-Bose statistics, Natanson statistics, Natanson-Bose-Einstein statistics, Planck-Natanson-Bose-Einstein statistics, Boltzmann-Planck-Natanson-Bose-Einstein statistics, divergent histories, Boltzmann-Planck-Natanson statistics, integrated approach, precursorship, Matthew effect, R.K. Merton effect, methodology of history, methodology of the history of exact sciences

Abstract

This article investigates the forgotten achievements of Władysław Natanson (1864–1937) related to the creation of Bose-Einstein statistics.

The introductory part of the article presents considerations regarding the methodology of history and the history of exact sciences, and then the divergent research perspectives that can be taken in the description of the history of Bose-Einstein statistics, as well as the author’s integrated approach to this issue, which eliminates the disadvantages of these divergent views.

This integrated approach is then used to describe the achievements of Władysław Natanson related to the creation of Bose-Einstein statistics.

These achievements are presented against the background and in the context of discussions which – relatively sporadically – took place among various groups of researchers: historians and philosophers of science, physicists, sociologists of scientific knowledge in the 20th and 21st centuries.

These discussions have now been reordered here. They are followed by a presentation of the complete list of Natanson’s publications regarding the subject. Also shown is his strategy to quote reliably the bibliography with regard to the explanation of the distribution of blackbody radiation and related issues.

Additionally, a list of scientists who knew Natanson’s publications has been supplemented in the article and the precursorship of Natanson’s achievements is explained. This is followed by a rebuttal of many erroneous or simplified statements about him and his achievements.

The already well-known terminological conventions have been recalled: “Bose statistics” and “Bose-Einstein statistics”, as well as recently introduced: “Planck-Bose statistics” (1984), “Natanson’s statistics” (1997)”, “Natanson-Bose-Einstein statistics” (2005), “Planck-Natanson-Bose-Einstein statistics” (2011), and “Natanson statistics” (2013).

New terminological conventions have been introduced: “Boltzmann-Planck-Natanson statistics” and “Boltzmann-Planck-Natanson-Bose-Einstein statistics”.

A side effect of this research is a discovery that Robert K. Merton – the author of the label ‘Matthew effect’ – chose the name of the effect using erroneous premises and the effect should therefore be named after its actual discoverer.

The article is accompanied by four appendixes: the first presents reflections on the methodology of historiography and historiography of exact sciences, the second – a commentary on the use of the terms: “Bose statistics”, “Bose-Einstein statistics”, “Einstein-Bose statistics” and “Planck-Bose statistics”, the third – a very important letter by Max Planck to  Władysław Natanson (of 25 January 1913), and the fourth – the excerpts of two letters from Sommerfeld to Rubinowicz (of 1 October 1919 and 1 November 1919).

References

ARCHIVAL SOURCES

Archiwum Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego. Spuścizna 10. Władysław Natanson (1864–1937).

Archiwum Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego. Welcome of the past president of USA Thomas Woodrow Wilson, for the award ceremony of a doctor honoris causa of philosophy in the Jagiellonian Universty.Draft of speech 1918. Spuścizna 10/24.

Biblioteka Jagiellońska. Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 1–19. Sygn. BJ Rkp. 9002 III.

Białobrzeski, Czesław 1912 (archival document): Letter from Czesław Białobrzeski to Władysław Natanson (Kijów, 1–14 September 1912).Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884-1937. T. 1, Abbe – Birkenmajerowa [Rękopis].Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/609759, folium 129.

Dziewulski, Wacław 1923: Letter of Wacław Dziewulski to Władysław Natanson (Wilno, 29 XII 1923). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884-1937. T. 4, Dziewicki – „Express Poranny”. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/609820,folium 110.

Ehrenfest, Paul 1911b (archival document): Paul Ehrenfest an Arnold Sommerfeld, 16. Oktober 1911 (Ehrenfest’s letter to Sommerfeld from St. Petersburg (Sommerfeld collection of German Museum in Munich). Archiv: München, DM (Archiv HS 1977-28/A,76).

Fajans, Kazimierz 1913 (archival document): Letter from Kazimierz Fajans to Władysław Natanson (Karlsruhe, 4 November 1913). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884-1937. T. 5, Fabiani – Godlewski Michał [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/609824, folia 3–4.

Gorczyński, Władysław 1911 (archival document): Letter from Władysław Gorczyński to Władyslaw Natanson (Warsaw, 10 April 1911). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 6, Godlewski Tadeusz – Hyde [Rękopis], folium 108. Avalilable online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/609827.

Infeld, Leopold 19126a (archival document): Letter from Leopold Infeld to Władysław Natanson (Warszawa, 9 February 1926). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 7, „Ilustrowany Kurier…” – King [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/Content/589573/zip/,folia 4–5.

Infeld, Leopold 1926b (archival document): Letter from Leopold Infeld to Władysław Natanson (Piaseczno, 26 July 1926). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 7, „Ilustrowany Kurier…” – King [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/Content/589573/zip/,folia 7–8.

Infeld, Leopold 1928 (archival document): Letter from Leopold Infeld to Władysław Natanson (Warszawa, 5 October 1928). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 7, „Ilustrowany Kurier…” – King [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/Content/589573/zip/,folia 11–12 recto.

Jacyna, Witold 1936 (archival document): Letter from Witold Jacyna to Władysław Natanson (Leningrad, 11 January 1936). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 7, “Ilustrowany Kurier…” – King [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/609830, folia 154–158.

Kruger,F. 1911a (archival document): Letter from F. Kruger to Władysław Natanson (Danzig-Langfuhr, 25 April 1911). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 9, Kowalewski – Kutrzeba [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/610273, folium 117.

Kruger,F. 1911b (archival document): Letter from F. Kruger to Władysław Natanson (Danzig-Langfuhr, 22 July 1911). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 9, Kowalewski – Kutrzeba [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/610273, folium 118.

Landé, Alfred 1925 (archival document): Letter from Alfred Landé to Władysław Natanson(Tübingen, 18 September 1925). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 10, Laar – Łukasiewicz [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/610285, folium 6.

Lichtenstein,Leon 1927 (archival document): Letter from Lenon Lichtenstein to Władysław Natanson (Lipsk, 29 May 1927). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 10, Laar – Łukasiewicz [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/610285, folia 147–148.

Lichtenstein,Leon 1928 (archival document): Letter from Lenon Lichtenstein to Władysław Natanson (Wildungen, 19.08.28). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884-1937. T. 10, Laar – Łukasiewicz [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/610285, folia 156–157.

Merczyng, Henryk 1912 (archival document): Letter from Henryk Merczyng to Władysław Natanson (St. Petersburg, 21 August 1912). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884-1937. T. 11, MacLehose – Mycielski [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/610343, folium 110.

Natanson, Władysław 1910 (archival document): Letter from Władysław Natanson to Marian Smoluchowski, 22 December 1910. [In:] Biblioteka Jagiellońska. Korespondencja Mariana Smoluchowskiego z lat 1893–1917. T. 6, Naster – Ostwald [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/Content/621612/zip/, folia 60–61.

Natanson, Władysław 1911a (archival document): Letter from Władysław Natanson to Marian Smoluchowski, 20 March 1911. [In:] Biblioteka Jagiellońska. Korespondencja Mariana Smoluchowskiego z lat 1893–1917. T. 6, Naster – Ostwald [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/Content/621612/zip/, folium 69.

Natanson, Władysław 1911b (archival document): Letter from Władysław Natanson to Marian Smoluchowski, 30 March 1911. [In:] Biblioteka Jagiellońska. Korespondencja Mariana Smoluchowskiego z lat 1893–1917. T. 6, Naster – Ostwald [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/Content/621612/zip/, folium 69.

Natanson, Władysław 1911c (archival document): Letter from Władysław Natanson to Marian Smoluchowski, 26 April 1911. [In:] Biblioteka Jagiellońska. Korespondencja Mariana Smoluchowskiego z lat 1893–1917. T. 6, Naster – Ostwald [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/Content/621612/zip/, folia 70–71.

Natanson, Władysław 1914a (archival document): Letter from Władysław Natanson to Marian Smoluchowski (Kraków, 29 June 1914). [In:] Biblioteka Jagiellońska. Korespondencja Mariana Smoluchowskiego z lat 1893–1917. T. 6, Naster – Ostwald [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/Content/621612/zip/,folia 151–152.

Natanson, Władysław 1914b (archival document): Letter Władysław Natanson to Marian Smoluchowski (Der Haag, 17 November 1914). [In:] Biblioteka Jagiellońska. Korespondencja Mariana Smoluchowskiego z lat 1893–1917. T. 6, Naster – Ostwald [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/Content/621612/zip/, folium 153.

Natanson, Władysław 1915 (archival document): Letter from Władysław Natanson to Marian Smoluchowski (Kraków, 11 September 1915). [In:] Biblioteka Jagiellońska. Korespondencja Mariana Smoluchowskiego z lat 1893–1917. T. 6, Naster – Ostwald [Rękopis] Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/Content/621612/zip/,folia 176–177.

Piekara,Arkadiusz1933 (archival document): Letter from Arkadiusz Piekara to Władysław Natanson (Paris, 15 September 1933). [In:] Biblioteka Jagiellońska. Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 12, Nagaoka – Piekara [Rękopis], sygn. BJ Rkp. 9013 III, folium 257.

Planck, Max 1913 (archival document): Letter from Max Planck to Władysław Natanson, 25 January 1913. [In:] Biblioteka Jagiellońska. Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 13, Pieniążek – Puzyna [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/dlibra/publication/610366/edition/609381/content, folium 60.

Sommerfeld, Arnold 1911a (archival document): Letter from Arnold Sommerfeld to Władysław Natanson (Munich, 3 October 1911). [In:] Biblioteka Jagiellońska. Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 16, Smolka – Szyszkowski [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/610464, folium107 recto.

Sommerfeld, Arnold 1919a(archival document): Letterfrom Arnold Sommerfeld to Adalbert Rubinowicz (Stockholm, 1 October 1919). [In:] Arnold Sommerfeld (1868–1951) Wissenschaftlicher Briefwechsel. LMU Lehrstuhl für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. Available oline: http://sommerfeld.userweb.mwn.de/KurzFass/05850.html.

Sommerfeld, Arnold 1919b(archival document): Letterfrom Arnold Sommerfeld to Adalbert Rubinowicz (Stockholm, 26 October 1919). [In:] Arnold Sommerfeld (1868–1951) Wissenschaftlicher Briefwechsel. LMU Lehrstuhl für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. Available oline: http://sommerfeld.userweb.mwn.de/KurzFass/05851.html.

Sommerfeld, Arnold 1919c(archival document): Letterfrom Arnold Sommerfeld to Adalbert Rubinowicz (Stockholm, 1 November 1919). [In:] Arnold Sommerfeld (1868–1951) Wissenschaftlicher Briefwechsel. LMU Lehrstuhl für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. Available oline: http://sommerfeld.userweb.mwn.de/KurzFass/05852.html.

Wolfke, Mieczysław 1924 (archival document): Letter from Mieczysław Wolfke to Władysław Natanson (Warszawa, 3 September 1924). [In:] Biblioteka Jagiellońska. Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 18, Wald – Young [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/610495, folium280 recto.

Zakrzewski, Konstanty 1914 (archival document): Letter from Konstanty Zakrzewski to Władysław Natanson (Lwów, 10 February 1914). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 19, Zahorski – Żórawski [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/610500, folia 52–53.

Zakrzewski, Konstanty 1916 (archival document): Letter from Konstanty Zakrzewski to Władysław Natanson ([Lwów], 23 January 1916). [In:] Korespondencja Władysława Natansona z lat 1884–1937. T. 19, Zahorski – Żórawski [Rękopis]. Available online: https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/publication/610500, folium 71.

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15-11-2019

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Kokowski, M. . (2019). The divergent histories of Bose-Einstein statistics and the forgotten achievements of Władysław Natanson (1864–1937). Studia Historiae Scientiarum, 18, 327–464. https://doi.org/10.4467/2543702XSHS.19.012.11018

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