TY - JOUR
AU - Kokowski, Michał
PY - 2019/11/15
Y2 - 2024/10/11
TI - The divergent histories of Bose-Einstein statistics and the forgotten achievements of Władysław Natanson (1864–1937)
JF - Studia Historiae Scientiarum
JA - Stud. Hist. Sci.
VL - 18
IS - 0
SE - SCIENCE BEYOND BORDERS
DO - 10.4467/2543702XSHS.19.012.11018
UR - https://ojs.ejournals.eu/SHS/article/view/6912
SP - 327-464
AB - <div class="text input-text"><p>This article investigates the forgotten achievements of Władysław Natanson (1864–1937) related to the creation of Bose-Einstein statistics.</p><p>The introductory part of the article presents considerations regarding the methodology of history and the history of exact sciences, and then the divergent research perspectives that can be taken in the description of the history of Bose-Einstein statistics, as well as the author’s integrated approach to this issue, which eliminates the disadvantages of these divergent views.</p><p>This integrated approach is then used to describe the achievements of Władysław Natanson related to the creation of Bose-Einstein statistics.</p><p>These achievements are presented against the background and in the context of discussions which – relatively sporadically – took place among various groups of researchers: historians and philosophers of science, physicists, sociologists of scientific knowledge in the 20<sup>th</sup> and 21<sup>st</sup> centuries.</p><p>These discussions have now been reordered here. They are followed by a presentation of the complete list of Natanson’s publications regarding the subject. Also shown is his strategy to quote reliably the bibliography with regard to the explanation of the distribution of blackbody radiation and related issues.</p><p>Additionally, a list of scientists who knew Natanson’s publications has been supplemented in the article and the precursorship of Natanson’s achievements is explained. This is followed by a rebuttal of many erroneous or simplified statements about him and his achievements.</p><p>The already well-known terminological conventions have been recalled: “Bose statistics” and “Bose-Einstein statistics”, as well as recently introduced: “Planck-Bose statistics” (1984), “Natanson’s statistics” (1997)”, “Natanson-Bose-Einstein statistics” (2005), “Planck-Natanson-Bose-Einstein statistics” (2011), and “Natanson statistics” (2013).</p><p>New terminological conventions have been introduced: “Boltzmann-Planck-Natanson statistics” and “Boltzmann-Planck-Natanson-Bose-Einstein statistics”.</p><p>A side effect of this research is a discovery that Robert K. Merton – the author of the label ‘Matthew effect’ – chose the name of the effect using erroneous premises and the effect should therefore be named after its actual discoverer.</p><p>The article is accompanied by four appendixes: the first presents reflections on the methodology of historiography and historiography of exact sciences, the second – a commentary on the use of the terms: “Bose statistics”, “Bose-Einstein statistics”, “Einstein-Bose statistics” and “Planck-Bose statistics”, the third – a very important letter by Max Planck to Władysław Natanson (of 25 January 1913), and the fourth – the excerpts of two letters from Sommerfeld to Rubinowicz (of 1 October 1919 and 1 November 1919).</p></div>
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