Prace Komisji Historii Nauki PAU <div class="description"> <div class="input-text"> <div id="journalDescription"> <p>The journal&nbsp;<em>Prace Komisji Historii Nauki PAU</em>&nbsp;is the first peer-reviewed, diamond open access (ie free of charge) journal in Poland devoted to the history of science.&nbsp;</p> <p>The publications of the journal concern the following:</p> <ul> <li class="show">general history of science and its relationships with other domains of culture (philosophy, religion, art and technology) and other meta-sciences (philosophy of science, sociology of the scientific knowledge, scientometrics etc.);</li> <li class="show">history of specific disciplines (scientific theories, world views, scholars and scientific institutions);</li> <li class="show">history of scientific institutions researching the history of science;</li> <li class="show">tools and techniques for research in the history of science and teaching of the history of science.</li> </ul> <p>Particular importance is placed on:</p> <ul> <li class="show">the Polish contribution to science;</li> <li class="show">mutual interactions of the Polish science and the foreign science;</li> <li class="show">international collaboration regarding the history of science;</li> <li class="show">open science regarding the history of science (including digital libraries) both on a national and international level;</li> <li class="show">critical appraisal of bibliometrics in the light of the history of science.</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> </div> </div> </div> en-US (Michał Kokowski) (Administracja techniczna) Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Scientific degrees in imperial Russia Numerous Polish scientists were conferred with scientific degrees in Imperial Russia. It is therefore useful to known what kind of hierarchy these degrees followed. Piotr Flin, Elena Panko Copyright (c) 2015 Piotr Flin, Elena Panko Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Nota na temat pojmowania uogólnionej zasady korespondencji / Note on the understanding of the generalized correspondence principle The author, referring to the text of Jan Woleński published on the pages of Prace Komisji Historii Nauki PAU in 2014, discusses the understanding of the generalized correspondence principle in the context of the following concepts: cumulativism (C.G. Hempel, P. Oppenhaim, E. Nagel), extreme anticumulativism (P. Feyerabend, T.S. Kuhn), dialectical cumulativism (W. Krajewski) and the hypothetico‑ deductive method of correspondence‑oriented thinking as well as Copernicus’s methodology (M. Kokowski). Michał Kokowski Copyright (c) 2015 Michał Kokowski Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Historicizing science or how the new comes into the world. A conversation with Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (in Polish) The conversation revolves around the historical epistemology as a special branch of the history of science, which has been largely influenced by Hans-Jörg Rheinberger and his team at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin. Apart from the discussion of the idea of historical epistemology, its position among the historical disciplines and the implications it has for science policy, what is also considered is experiment as a basic unit of science. Jan Surman Copyright (c) 2015 Jan Surman Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Karol Olszewski’s 100th anniversary of death and his contribution to cryogenics (in Polish) The article briefly presents the scientific achievements of Karol Olszewski (1846– 1915), who was born when Poland did not exist on the map of Europe and Polish science was developed mainly in Krakow, Lviv and at some European Universities. In 1883 Karol Olszewski and Zygmunt Wróblewski were the first in the world to liquefy oxygen, nitrogen and carbon oxide from the atmosphere in a stable state. In 1884 Olszewski was also the first person who liquefied hydrogen in a dynamic state, achieving a record low temperature of 225 °C (48 K). In 1895 he succeeded in liquefying argon. In January 1896 Olszewski replicated the Roentgen’s set‑up for obtaining X‑rays and successfully obtained this newly‑ discovered radiation for the first time in Krakow, initiating the foundation of the university’s department of radiology. Olszewski died on 25 March 1915. In March 2015 the Faculty of Chemistry of the Jagiellonian University organized a special celebration to commemorate the life and achievements of Karol Olszewski. Alicja Rafalska-Łasocha Copyright (c) 2015 Alicja Rafalska-Łasocha Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 International collaboration in the history of science of Central Europe In the last ten years, approximately, we could witness an evolution in informal international collaboration focusing on shared and interconnected history of science in the Habsburg Monarchy and in Central Europe in general. This effort, which includes mainly historians of science from Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, has already produced a number of important results and contributed to the thematization of some timeless topics of history of sciences such as, for instance, nationalization and internationalization of science. In the context of this cooperation, the seminar of Jan Surman, a historian of science of Polish descent, held at the Institute of Contemporary History of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague in May 2015, concentrated on the formation of national scientific terminologies. It also underlined the necessity and usefulness of international collaboration in achieving a deeper understanding of the “national” histories of science, which cannot be separated from the “international” history. Soňa Štrbaňova Copyright (c) 2015 Soňa Štrbaňova Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Ewolucyjna transformacja czasopisma. Część 2 / Evolutionary transformation of the journal. Part 2 <p><span>It is outlined the third phase of the development of the journal </span><em>Prace Komisji Historii Nauki PAU</em><span>(</span><em>Proceedings of the PAU Commission on the History of Science</em><span>).</span></p><p><span>The goal of the Editorial Board of the “Proceedings of the PAU Commission on the History of Science” is to build a modern journal in the field of broadly understood history of science, which will refer to both Polish and foreign achievements with appropriate respect.</span></p> Michał Kokowski Copyright (c) 2015 Michał Kokowski Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Remarks on Prof. Michał Kokowski’s comment about the studies into the life of Prof. Jan Czochralski (in Polish) Remarks on the critical comments regarding the contents of the paper published after the presentation delivered by the biographer of Prof. Jan Czochralski. Unfortunately, Prof. Kokowski used an incorrect historical approach to such a short paper. The remarks are presented in four main points. Paweł E. Tomaszewski Copyright (c) 2015 Paweł E. Tomaszewski Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Remarks to Dr. Paul E. Tomaszewski’s comments on the research of Jan Czochralski’s curriculum vitae (a reply) (in Polish) The author replies to the text entitled “Remarks to the comment by Prof. Michal Kokowski on the research of Jan Czochralski’s biography” by Dr. Paweł E. Tomaszewski (2015), highlighting the key contentious issues, including the need to rely systematically on historical sources and the criticism thereof. Michał Kokowski Copyright (c) 2015 Michał Kokowski Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Natural sciences in Hans-Jörg Rheinberger’s historico-epistemological approach (in Polish) The article presents a critical review of the form and content of the Polish translation of Hans-Jörg Rheinberger’s book entitled Epistemologia historyczna (Historical epistemology) (Warsaw: Oficyna Naukowa, 2015. Translated [from German] by Jan Surman. ISBN 978-83-64363-20-7, pp. 336), indicating both the substantive advantages of this book and its some (mainly linguistic) shortcomings. Michał Kokowski Copyright (c) 2015 Prac Komisji Historii Nauki PAU Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Éva Vámos (1950–2015) <p>The article describes synthetically the achievements of Professor Katalin Éva Vámos, Habilitated Doctor (22 May 1950 – 25 July 2015), a historian of science, museologist of science and technology, a longtime director of the Hungarian Museum of Science, Technology and Transport in Budapest (MTESZ).</p> Ewa Wyka Copyright (c) 2015 Ewa Wyka Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Leonhardi Euleri Opera omnia: Editing the works and correspondence of Leonhard Euler The paper gives an overview on the history and present state of the edition of the complete works of Leonhard Euler (1707–1783). After several failed initiatives in the 19th century, the project began in 1907 with the edition of Euler’s printed works. The works were divided into three series: I. Mathematics (29 volumes); II. Mechanics and Astronomy (31 volumes); and III. Physics and Miscellaneous (12 volumes). After several ups and downs due to two World Wars and economic problems, the publication of the printed works with a total of 72 volumes is nearly finished. Only two volumes on perturbation theory in astronomy are still missing. The publication of series IV (manuscripts and correspondence) started in 1967 as a joint project of the Swiss and the Soviet academies of sciences. The manuscript edition was postponed, and the project focussed on Euler’s correspondence which contains approximately 3000 letters, 1000 of them written by Euler. The correspondents include famous<br /> mathematicians of the 18th century like d’Alembert, Clairaut and the Bernoullis, but also many less-known people with whom Euler corresponded on a great variety of subjects. A major problem is to find and to finance appropriate editors who are able to read French, Latin, and the old German handwriting, and who are acquainted with history, culture and science of the 18th century. During the last 50 years, the editors gathered copies or scans of most of the preserved Euler’s letters. The original letters addressed to Euler were made available to the editorial group in Switzerland by the Russian Academy of Sciences before World War I, and before their restitution in 1947 the editors made fairly good photographs that are now an important part of the material basis of the edition. Each volume of the letter series (VIA) contains Euler’s correspondence with one or more of his contemporaries, presented in a chronological order. Up to the present day, four volumes of the correspondence have been published, in addition to an inventory of all known letters to and from Euler, including short summaries and useful information about the date, language and location of the existing copies, and former publication. Four more volumes are in progress and will be published in 2016 or 2017. The remaining letters that are not intended for publication in the printed volumes are planned to be made available in an online edition. Andreas Kleinert Copyright (c) 2015 Andreas Kleinert Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 The Academy of Arts and Sciences in Krakow (1872–1918) and its Czech members (in Polish) <div class="text input-text"><p style="text-align: justify;">The article shows that the Czech humanists formed the largest group among the foreign members of the Academy of Arts and Sciences in Krakow. It is mainly based on the reports of the activities of the Academy.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The Academy of Arts and Sciences in Krakow was established by transforming the Krakow Learned Society. The Statute of the newly founded Academy was approved by a decision of the Emperor Franz Joseph I on February 16, 1872. The Emperor nominated his brother Archduke Karl Ludwig as the Academy’s Protector.</p><p style="text-align: justify;">The Academy was assigned to take charge of research matters related to different fields of science: philology (mainly Polish and other Slavic languages); history of literature; history of art; philosophical; political and legal sciences; history and archaeology; mathematical sciences, life sciences, Earth sciences and medical sciences. In order to make it possible for the Academy to manage so many research topics, it was divided into three classes: a philological class, a historico‑philosophical class, and a class for mathematics and natural sciences. Each class was allowed to establish its own commissions dealing with different branches of science.<br /> The first members of the Academy were chosen from among the members of the Krakow Learned Society. It was a 12‑person group including only local members, approved by the Emperor. It was also them who elected the first President of the Academy, Józef Majer, and the Secretary General, Józef Szujski, from this group.<br /> By the end of 1872, the organization of the Academy of Arts and Sciences in Krakow was completed. It had its administration, management and three classes that were managed by the respective directors and secretaries. It also had three commissions, taken over from the Krakow Learned Society, namely: the Physiographic Commission, the Bibliographic Commission and the Linguistic Commission. At that time, the Academy had only a total of 24 active members who had the right to elect non‑ resident and foreign members. Each election had to be approved by the Emperor.<br /> The first public plenary session of the Academy was held in May 1873. After the speeches had been delivered, a list of candidates for new members of the Academy was read out. There were five people on the list, three of which were Czech: Josef Jireček, František Palacký and Karl Rokitansky. The second on the list was – since February 18, 1860 – a correspondent member of the Krakow Learned Society, already dissolved at the time. They were approved by the Emperor Franz Joseph in his rescript of July 7, 1873.<br /> Josef Jireček (1825–1888) became a member of the Philological Class. He was an expert on Czech literature, an ethnographer and a historian. František Palacký (1798–1876) became a member of the Historico‑Philosophical Class. The third person from this group, Karl Rokitansky (1804–1878), became a member of the Class for Mathematics and Natural Sciences.<br /> The mere fact that the first foreigners were elected as members of the Academy was a perfect example of the criteria according to which the Academy selected its active members. From among the humanists, it accepted those researchers whose research had been linked to Polish matters and issues. That is why until the end of World War I, the Czech representatives of social sciences were the biggest group among the foreign members of the Academy. As for the members of the Class for Mathematics and Natural Sciences, the Academy invited scientists enjoying exceptional recognition in the world. These criteria were binding throughout the following years.<br /> The Academy elected two other humanists as its members during the session held on October 31, 1877 and these were Václav Svatopluk Štulc (1814–1887) and Antonin Randa (1834–1914). Václav Svatopluk Štulc became a member of the Philological Class and Antonin Randa became a member of the Historico‑Philosophical Class.<br /> The next Czech scholar who became a member of the Academy of Arts and Scientists in Krakow was Václav Vladivoj Tomek (1818–1905). It was the Historico‑Philosophical Class that elected him, which happened on May 2, 1881.<br /> On May 14, 1888, the Krakow Academy again elected a Czech scholar as its active member. This time it was Jan Gebauer (1838–1907), who was to replace Václav Štulc, who had died a few months earlier.<br /> Further Czech members of the Krakow Academy were elected at the session on December 4, 1899. This time it was again humanists who became the new members: Zikmund Winter (1846–1912), Emil Ott (1845–1924) and Jaroslav Goll (1846–1929). Two years later, on November 29, 1901, Jan Kvičala (1834–1908) and Jaromir Čelakovský (1846–1914) were elected as members of the Krakow Academy. Kvičala became a member of the Philological Class and Čelakovský – a corresponding member of the Historical‑Philosophical Class.<br /> The next member of the Krakow Academy was František Vejdovský (1849–1939) elected by the Class for Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Six years later, a chemist, Bohuslav Brauner (1855–1935), became a member of the same Class.<br /> The last Czech scientists who had been elected as members of the Academy of Arts and Sciences in Krakow before the end of the World War I were two humanists: Karel Kadlec (1865–1928) and Václav Vondrák (1859–1925).<br /> The founding of the Czech Royal Academy of Sciences in Prague in 1890 strengthened the cooperation between Czech and Polish scientists and humanists.</p></div> Halina Lichocka Copyright (c) 2015 Halina Lichocka Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Polish origins of the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences of the University of Fribourg and the Polish contribution to the Fribourg industrial revolution (in Polish) The article is dedicated to high-tech companies founded by Poles at the end of the 19th century in the rural canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. The text is divided into two parts. In the first part, the author attempts to present the economic, social and political reality of Fribourg in a period of intense industrialization in the world and the formation of the liberal free market system. In this rapidly changing reality, the new Catholic-conservative authorities of the canton tried to lead to establishing of a comprehensive, but also different system of a “Christian republic”, whose aim was to achieve social justice consistent with the teachings of the Gospel. In order to complete the project, the cantonal government did not shy away from using the possibilities and measures offered by the contemporary world. Decision-makers, led by Georges Python, needed support from the society, who was aware of the changes. Due to this fact, it became necessary to establish a university capable of shaping new attitudes and views. However, the costs significantly exceeded the financial capabilities of the agricultural and relatively poor canton of Fribourg. In these less favourable circumstances, a conscious policy of industrialization was the way out of the deadlock. Newly created industrial institutions were to contribute to an increase of cash inflows to the canton and thus allow for the financing of the university, which would also become an intellectual foundation for the emerging industry. The activity of Polish scientists, which is the subject of the second part of the article, matched this philosophy perfectly. The Poles invited to cooperate with Python, i.e. Józef Wierusz-Kowalski, Ignacy Mościcki and Jan Modzelewski, created the foundations of the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences at the University of Fribourg. As members of the faculty, in addition to teaching, they conducted research into, among other things, nitric acid synthesis and construction of electrical capacitors. Convinced of the need to put their innovations into wide production, they financed and built the first experimental factories and, over time, led to the development of a nitric acid factory and a high-voltage capacitor factory on an industrial scale. Although after the First World War the commitment of the Poles stopped, the 30 years of academic research and experience clearly showed that a conscious cooperation of policy-makers and highly qualified scientific personnel can bring surprising and unexpected results. Wojciech Kocurek Copyright (c) 2015 Wojciech Kocurek Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Wincenty Lutosławski and his interest in the United States of America in the light of the correspondence addressed to the Kosciuszko Foundation (in Polish) Author found and gave to print unknown letters of Vilnius philosopher and scholar, Wincenty Lutosławski to Stefan Mierzwa, executive director of the Kosciuszko Foundation – the source kept in the Archives of the Kosciuszko Foundation in New York City. The letters reveal unknown facts from the life of Vilnius philosopher. Lutosławski appears to be a great admirer of Juliusz Osterwa and his The Reduta (Redoubt) Theatre, as well as a good advocate of his students. In the same time despite of being in late 60. Lutosławski had great plans and ambitions to arrive to the U.S. under auspices of the KF. What is more, the correspondence shows that Lutosławski, focused on promoting his own person and achievements, was not far of underestimating the authority even those scholars, who like Roman Dyboski, were generally favorable to him. The correspondence confirms therefore not the best opinion enjoyed by Polish philosopher in the world of science. Tomasz Pudłocki Copyright (c) 2015 Tomasz Pudłocki Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 The history of mathematics in the Krakow University of Technology (1945–2015) (in Polish) The subject of the paper is the history of Mathematics at the Krakow University of Technology since 1945 up to 2015. It presents profiles of the most famous mathematicians in the history of the Krakow University of Technology (M. Krzyżański, J. Bochenek, F. Barański, I. Łojczyk-Królikiewicz) and some information about their scientific achievements. Jan Koroński Copyright (c) 2015 Jan Koroński Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 A sketch on the current debate on scientometrics and bibliometrics versus the forgotten science of science (in Polish) <p>In the debate on scientometrics and bibliometrics, taking place in Poland in the last 25 years, a very serious methodical and methodological mistake has been committed by neglecting the reflection about the science of science, especially of historical and methodological character. The following article discusses this issue.</p><p>This aim was achieved with the use of a method of interdisciplinary research originating from the scope of the science of science and the history of the science of science. This method was applied to the analysis of selected major publications on scientometrics and bibliometrics in the past 25 years, with special emphasis on Polish context.</p><p>The results are discussed in the article, i.e. a) the context of the current debate on scientometrics and bibliometrics in Poland; b) the history of Polish scientometric analyses based on foreign indexation databases; c) the current discussion on scientometrics and bibliometrics in Poland and d) the key aspect ignored in the current debate, namely the inseparable connection of scientometrics and bibliometrics with the science of science.</p><p>The study leads to the following conclusions: it is postulated that the informetric (scientometric, bibliometric, Webometric, etc.) studies return to the scientific discourse, which would be consciously developed in the context of the integrated science of science. This knowledge should be utilized in the development of the current science policy, i.e. the organizational structure of science and higher education and the formation of rules of appraisal of scientific institutions, individual employees and scientific journals.</p> Michał Kokowski Copyright (c) 2015 Michał Kokowski Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 What kind of scientometrics and bibliometrics do we need in Poland? (in Polish) <p>The aim of this research study and review article is to examine the scientific basis of scientometrics and bibliometrics, i.e. to show their real “detection and measurement” capabilities. The analysis is conducted from the author’s perspective of the integrated science of science and the history and methodology of the science of science following this perspective. Particular emphasis is placed on the history and methodology of scientometrics and bibliometrics and the history and methodology of science. This perspective is a new approach to the subject matter and determines a) how to select publications and their interpretations and b) which hierarchy the analyzed issues should follow.</p><p>The article describes the view, dominant both in the world and in Poland, on the basics of scientometrics and bibliometrics and their numerous serious scientific restrictions, such as: a) the incompatibility of the so‑called scientometric laws and the Garfield law of concentration with the empirical data; b) the domain bias, the language bias and the geographical bias of indexation databases; c) various practices of scientific communication; d) the local (national or state‑ level) orientation of humanities, social sciences and citation indexes; e) the disadvantages of the impact factor (IF), the manipulations with its values and the “impact factor game”; f) the numerous problems with and abuses of citations, e.g. the Mendel syndrome, the “classic” publication bias, the palimpsestic syndrome, the effect of the disappearance of citations, the so‑called Matthew effect, the theft of citations, the so‑called secondary and tertiary citations, negative citations, “fashionable nonsenses”, forced citations, the pathologies of the so‑ called citation cartels or cooperative citations, the guest authorship and the honorable authorship; g) the distinction between the “impact of publication” and the “importance of publication” or the “significance” of publication; h) the effectiveness of indexation of publications in electronic and Internet databases and the technological modernity of publications. The discovery of such restrictions regarding scientometrics and bibliometrics has led to the creation of, among others, biobibliometrics, alternative metrics (“altmetrics”) and the open science movement.</p><p>The analysis of this information results in a general conclusion that is relevant to the current scientific policy in Poland, i.e. it is necessary to resist the “tyranny of bibliometrics”, because it does not serve the development of science. As a consequence, the use of scientometric methods in evaluations of scientific activities should be limited, particularly in the humanities and social sciences.</p><p>The article also advocates for implementing the idea, considered as priority, of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, which is the promotion of the achievements of Polish humanities and social sciences at home and abroad. In order to achieve this aim, the following is proposed: a) developing the integrated science of science (as protection against the numerous errors of scientometrics and bibliometrics); b) expanding indexation databases of publications, digital libraries and digital repositories; c) intensifying the participation of Polish scientists in international research, including becoming actively involved in the international project aiming at building a European indexation database for humanities and social sciences, d) developing open access to scientific contents and e) modernizing Polish scientific journals and scientific publishing.</p> Michał Kokowski Copyright (c) 2015 Michał Kokowski Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Scientometric, bibliometric and informetric bibliography (Selection) <p>The text presents a selection of bibliography on scientometrics, bibliometrics and informetrics.</p><p>The bibliography was chosen in the context of the author’s research of: a) the current debate on scientometrics, bibliometrics and informetrics in Poland, b) the history of these disciplines, and c) the history of the science of science.</p><p>This selection has an important advantage because it includes many publications that a) represent the views both of Polish and foreign authors, b) discuss serious methodological limitations of scientometrics, bibliometrics and informetrics and c) show the inseparable connection between the disciplines and the science of science.</p><p>This bibliography was already used in two of the author’s articles published in Prace Komisji Historii Nauki PAU, volume 14 (2015).</p> Michał Kokowski Copyright (c) 2015 Michał Kokowski Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Sprawozdanie z działalności Komisji Historii Nauki PAU w 2014/2015 roku / The report on the activities of the PAU Commission on the Hstory of Science in 2014/2015 <p>The report on the activities of the PAU Commission on the Hstory of Science in 2014/2015</p> Michał Kokowski Copyright (c) 2015 Michał Kokowski Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100